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Leo X, as well as other popes from this period, such as Sixtus IV, retained Jewish physicians in Rome.During the Reformation, in 1555, Pope Paul IV decreed that all Jews must be segregated into their own quarters (ghettos), and they were forbidden to leave their home during the night, were banned from all but the most strenuous occupations and had to wear a distinctive badge — a yellow hat.The Jews of Rome fully participated in the flourishing economic and intellectual climate of the Renaissance.They became merchants, traders and bankers, as well as artisans.Jews were forced to pay an annual stipend to pay the salaries of the Catholic officials who supervised the Ghetto Finance Administration and the Jewish Community Organization; a stipend to pay for Christian missionaries who proselytized to the Jews and a yearly sum to the Cloister of the Converted.In return, the state helped with welfare work, but gave no money toward education or caring for the sick.

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On the other hand, Eugenius IV (1431-47) passed anti-Jewish legislation in the Council of Constance.From the 1200's to the mid 1400's, treatment of the Jews varied from pope to pope.For example, in 1295, Pope Bonifice VIII humiliated a visiting Jewish delegation that was sent to congratulate him on his ascendancy; whereas, Pope Boniface IX (1389-1404) treated the Jews benevolently.They were not allowed to study in higher education institutions or become lawyers, pharmacists, painters, politicians, notaries or architects.Jewish doctors were only allowed to treat Jewish patients.